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Otto Frank file
Timeline of Key Events



TIMELINE OF KEY EVENTS
RELATIVE TO YIVO’S OTTO FRANK FILE
May 10, 1940 Germany invades the Netherlands.
October 5, 1940 Civil servants in Netherlands forced to sign "Aryan attestation."
January 10, 1941 Compulsory registration in Netherlands of all persons "wholly or largely of Jewish blood."
March 31, 1941 Creation of the Zentralstelle für Jüdische Auswanderung (Central Office for Jewish Emigration) in the Netherlands.
April 15, 1941 All Jews in the Netherlands ordered to hand in their wireless sets.
April 30, 1941 Otto Frank first writes to Nathan Straus, Jr., for assistance in emigrating to U.S.
May 1, 1941 Jewish doctors in the Netherlands banned from treating non-Jews; Jews banned from attending stock and commercial exchanges.
June 22, 1941 Germany invades the USSR.
July 1, 1941 US Navy aircraft start antisubmarine patrols from bases in Newfoundland.
August 8-11, 1941 New regulations issued in the Netherlands governing Jewish assets and property; all Jewish assets to be registered with the Lippmann-Rosenthal Bank.
September 8, 1941 Otto Frank writes to Nathan Straus, Jr., to explore possibility of obtaining visas for Cuba.
September 15, 1941 "Forbidden for Jews" signs appear in the Netherlands; Jews banned from public parks, zoos, cafes, restaurants, hotels, guest houses, theaters, cabarets, cinemas, concerts, and libraries.
September 17, 1941 US Navy increases its role in escorting Atlantic convoys bound for England.
October 1, 1941 Jewish children in Amsterdam are required to attend segregated schools.
October 20, 1941 Joodsche Raad, the Nazi-appointed Jewish Council, sanctions the creation of a "card index" of Jews in the Netherlands.
November 7, 1941 Jews banned from traveling within Holland except with official permission.
November 27, 1941 US issues a "war warning" to its overseas commanders.
December 1, 1941 Cuban government issues a single visa in the name of Otto Frank
December 5, 1941 All non-Dutch Jews ordered to register for "voluntary emigration" to the East.
December 7, 1941 Japan attacks US military installations at Pearl Harbor, Guam, Wake and Midway.
December 8, 1941 US declares war against Japan.
December 11, 1941 Germany and Italy declare war on the United States; Cuban visa for Otto Frank cancelled.
January 10, 1942 The first Jews from Amsterdam sent to Nazi work camps.
May 3, 1942 Introduction of the Jewish Star, effectively sealing the fate of Jews in the Netherlands.
July 5, 1942 Otto’s elder daughter, Margot, receives a call-up letter ordering her to report for transport to the East.
July 6, 1942 Otto Frank and his family go into hiding.

June 22, 1945 Julius Hollander, Otto Frank’s brother-in-law, appeals to the National Refugee Service’s Migration Department for assistance in contacting the Franks, having been mistakenly informed that the they were alive and living in Paris.
January 31, 1946 National Refugee Service writes Julius Hollander with information that Otto Frank is in Amsterdam, Edith is deceased, and the daughters are still missing.
February 2, 1946 Julius Hollander informs the National Refugee Service that he is in contact with Otto Frank, who has decided to remain in Amsterdam.

Partially adapted from Bob Moore, Victims and Survivors: The Nazi Persecution of the Jews in the Netherlands, 1940-45 (London, 1997)